What is an Array in JavaScript?

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In JavaScript, arrays are predefined objects, where the indexes are the arrays properties. They can hold a collection of values with differing data types. The array is a go-to data structure for common list related tasks.

Is JavaScript Object Oriented?

JavaScript is a prototype based, multi-paradigm, single threaded, dynamic language which supports object oriented, imperative, and declarative styles.

The one difference between other OOP languages like Java or C++ and JavaScript, is the fact that JavaScript isn't class based, it's prototype based and doesn't require explicit class usage to define objects. It uses prototype based object constructions. Within a prototype based language like JavaScript, the prototypical object is an object used as a template to get the initial properties for a new object. We can use function declarations, class declarations and class expressions for defining a template for objects.

Instead of defining a class declaration for every object like we would in Java:

Filename: Shape.java
public class Shape {
public int x;
public int y;
public string currShape;

constructor(x: int, y: int, currShape: string) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
this.currShape = currShape;

the equivalent function declaration in JavaScript would look like this:

Filename: Shape.js
function Shape() {
this.x = 0;
this.y = 0;
this.currShape = "";

The reason why sometimes choosing a "function declaration" will be preferred is because of hoisting. Function declarations are hoisted where class declarations are not. Which in short, means that with function declarations the compiler allocates memory for the function declarations prior to the execution of code, so we can access the object "before" its declaration like this:

const el = new Foo(); // OK!

function Foo() {
this.bar = "foobar";

The above is possible thanks to hoisting, which makes variables and function declarations able to be accessed before their definition. Hoisting only works for declarations and not initializations.

Can I still use ES6 style classes

You can most definitely still create the template for objects (classes) using ES6 style class syntax, which has been described as "class declarations" above. Just as shown earlier in the article, we can define classes in JavaScript with the ES6 style (class declaration) like this:

Filename: myclass.js
class MyClass {
constructor(x, y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;

using named or unnamed class expressions works too:

// unnamed
const MyOtherClass = class {
constructor(foo) {
this.foo = foo;

// named
const SomeOtherClass = class SomeOther {
constructor(foo) {
this.foo = foo;

If you want to specify the "next" object in the inheritance chain. Like we would by defining a class as a child of some superclass class Foo extends Bar. We add a prototypical instance as the value of the prototype property within the constructor, then simply override the prototypes constructor to the constructor function.

function Square() {
this.currShape = "Square";
// Pass in the prototypical instance to Object.create()
// and assign it to the prototype property of Square definition
Square.prototype = Object.create(Shape.prototype);
// Override the constructor with our constructor function Shape
Square.prototype.constructor = Square;

Now we have a inheritance chain, where the Shape definition descends from Square. The hierarchy would look like this in Java:

public class Square extends Shape {
public string currShape = "Square";

If your coming from a C or Java background which is class-based, it might take a little bit of practice and reading to get the hang of prototype-based languages and Object model along with the inheritance chain. You can read more on MDN - Details of the Object model.

Defining Objects

We can define an Object in multiple ways in JavaScript:

// Create an object literal
let obj = { x: 20, y: 40 };

// Create an empty object and assign its properties/values (key value pairs)
let someObj = {};
someObj.prop1 = "hello";

// Create an object using the new keyword
let myObj = new Object();
myObj.foo = "bar";

We can also utilize Object.create() to create a new object from an existing object by using it as the prototype for our newly created object.

const Human = {
name: "",
isHungry: false,
about: () => {
console.log(`My name is ${this.name}. Am I hungry? ${this.isHungry}`);

const tanner = Object.create(Human);
tanner.name = "Tanner";
tanner.isHungry = true;
// My name is Tanner. Am I hungry? true

You can create a normal empty object simply by using Object.create({}). If you need to create a null object instance, like Object.create(null), keep in mind its not a normal object and won't have access to almost all expected methods like "generic" objects will. There seem to be some ways around this, but the most foolproof option is setting the generic prototype as the new null objects prototype with setPrototypeOf.

let oddball = Object.create(null); // a "null" object (not standard)
oddball.toString(); // Error! toString is not a function

// Set the object instance to be a "generic" prototype
Object.setPrototypeOf(oddball, Object.prototype);

oddball.toString(); // [object Object]

In Java and C++, we create the "template" for objects by using the class keyword as these are "class-based" languages, where we define the objects state (member variables) and behavior (methods). JavaScript does have a Class reserved keyword for creating classes but it's usually best to use functions and prototypical objects to build out the inheritance chain like we would define a superclass and child classes in Java.

Anatomy of an Array

In JavaScript, arrays can more closely resemble a Map with name/value pairs.

Arrays are predefined objects, where its indexes are the properties.

That means the first value of an array at index 0 would be displayed as 0: 15 where the 0th (first index) holds a value of 15. One of my favorite things about JavaScript arrays compared to other languages arrays (like Java) is the fact that JavaScript arrays can hold a collection of values with different data types and grow dynamically.

let arr = [10, "foo", true, { prop: "bar" }];
console.log(arr[0]); // 10 (Number)
console.log(arr[1]); // "foo" (String)
console.log(arr[2]); // true (Boolean)
console.log(arr[3]); // Object { prop: "bar" }
console.log(arr[3].prop); // "bar" (access object properties)

There are many data structures in JavaScript and like shown above, arrays can hold any of the primitive types (undefined, String, Number, Boolean, BigInt, Symbol) and structural types.

Note: In Java, a generic array can only hold values of the same data type and cannot grow dynamically. This is where an ArrayList comes in handy because it's size can be dynamic and doesn't need to be "predefined" similar to arrays in JavaScript.

How can I create an Array?

There are a few ways to go about creating an Array in JavaScript.

You can create an empty array and then assign it's values:

let arr = [];
arr[0] = 1;
arr[1] = 3;
arr[2] = 5;

console.log(arr); // [1, 3, 5]

Define the array inline:

let arr = [1, 2, "foo"];
console.log(arr[0]); // 1
console.log(arr[1]); // 2
console.log(arr[2]); // "foo"

Use the new keyword to create an Array object and then assign its indexes some values:

let arr = new Array();
arr[0] = "foo";
arr[1] = "bar";
console.log(arr); // ["foo", "bar"]

The indexes in an array are integer values, therefore you cannot use the dot operator Object.property to access values from the array and must use bracket notation Object["property"]. The indexes represent the property names for the array object itself so you should only use numeric index values to the array. If you add a non-numeric index to the array, it must be a string literal containing a number in the quotes. You may treat the array more like an object and use arr["foo"] = "bar" but the index "foo" will not be counted when calling arr.length.

let arr = [1, 2, "foo"];
arr["3"] = "bar";
arr[4] = "fuzz";
console.log(arr); // [1, 2, "foo", "bar", "fuzz"]

Because the property names for an array object are it's indexes, when we access or assign an index in the array using bracket notation like arr[4], there is an implicit type coercion happening in the background to cast the value 4 which is a Number to type String.

Arrays are objects in JavaScript?

You might be asking yourself, so are arrays objects in JavaScript? And the answer is yes. If you check with typeof [1,2,3] it will output [object Array] (3) verifying it is indeed an Array object. We discussed at the beginning of the article, arrays are predefined objects. It becomes very clear arrays are objects when we use the length property of an array like arr.length to return the length. The way we access the length property using dot notation is exactly the same as how we would access the property of any object like Object.property.

To further solidify that arrays are objects, the indexes in an array are the properties, so when we access a value such as arr["2"] we are accessing the Object["2"] value. The value stored at index 2 can be accessed from the array object by using the property "2".

One last interesting note about arrays involves Array.prototype.length, which is essentially Object.length. When you have used the length property to count the number of values in an array, you might think it is counting each index that has a value. This is actually not the case. The length property returns the greatest number value index and increments it by one (due to 0-base indexing). Some people might look at this as a flaw, but I think it's a good way for us as developers to define arrays with logical and sequential numeric indexes to make sure when we use Object.length it returns the expected array length.

let arr = [1, 2, 3];
arr[7] = 4;
console.log(arr); // [1, 2, 3, undefined, undefined, undefined, undefined, 4]
console.log(arr.length); // 8

You might think the above array arr would have a length of 4. But it actually has a length of 8. This is because the arr.length call returns the highest index in the array (7) and increments it by one (7+1=8). The way this works is that since the indexes arr[3]-arr[6] were not provided values, they are simply filled with undefined.

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